‘Formative assessment includes both feedback and self-monitoring.
The goal of many instructional systems is to facilitate the transition from feedback to self-monitoring.’
Royce Sadler, Professor of Higher Education, Griffith University, Australia
Reflection and learning
Relationship between Learning and assessment and feedback has become more widely understood over the last decade through the work of Gibbs and Simpson, Black and Wiliam, Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick in the UK, and Boud and Sadler in Australia. Principles of effective practice arising from their work have had a wide impact. it is now recognized that learning programmes that provide opportunities for learners to acquire skills of self-monitoring and self-regulation (for example by assessing their own work against defined criteria) prompt deeper and more effective learning. A number of sources demonstrated that technology has a significant part to play in making such approaches achievable without adding to the workload of practitioners.
Secondly, research by JISC has deepened understanding of the extent to which learners rely on technology while learning. Research undertaken between 2005 and 2009 into learners’ experiences of e-learning revealed a high level of ownership of technologies such as laptops and handhelds among learners entering higher education, indicating that use of technology for research and assignment production is likely to be widespread.
While not all learners can be considered competent users of technology for educational purposes, institutional assessment and feedback practices need to take account of the digitally enhanced landscape in which learning now takes place that requires digital skills uptake from both adult learners and educators.
Formative assessment cycle (phases). The goal of formative assessment is to in fact monitor learner’s progress over the observed period of time in order to provide a sound feedback and enable changes in one’s learning path towards better final achievement. Setting up a quality formative assessment system is no easy task. The phases of formative assessment are divided into:
1. Setting up phase (defining goals and standards)
2.Provision of targeted instruction
3.Informed teaching (monitoring-data collection)
4.Data analysis (target areas of misunderstanding and areas where learners need additional challenge)
5.Responding to data (decision making and feedback; adult educator adjusts instruction and assessment as needed to readdress the objective more effectively.)
Some of the best practices in literature suggest that quality formative assessment entails the following approach:
An assessment plan must come first, not last, in the educational process.
Assessment, by necessity, integrates knowledge, skills, procedures, and dispositions.
Active inclusion of learners in all phases.
Formative assessment supports self-assessment as it embeds design of intentional and objective learner’s self assessment
Monitoring based on continuous triple interaction: learner with educator, learner with other learners and learner with him/herself.
Formative assessment strategies. How an adult educator can choose which type of formative assessment strategy to apply? This is a complex question, nevertheless some common considerations should be uphold to in deciding which strategy is best to use. These include:
❑ determine what aspect of learning adult educators want to measure.
❑ What learning preferences of students are
❑ Formative assessment strategies can be given to students individually, in small groups, or as a class. The type of grouping used for the formative assessment will also influence the choice of strategy.
❑ Adult educators should apply a variety of individual and group formative assessment
❑ Individual strategies allow educators to get a clear picture of each learner ability and their understanding of the concept or skill being measured.
❑ Group strategies provide for a more general information about earners that can be used to plan instruction.
Learners also use formative assessment information to make changes to their (self)learning.
Formative assessment strategies. Some of the commonly used formative assessment strategies in different settings include (on and offline): ABC brainstorming, Analogies, Checklists, Choral response, Cloze procedure, Concept maps, Conferences , Computer surveys, Demonstration stations, Discussions, Double entry journals, Drawings, E mail questions, Examples and non-examples, Exit cards, Graph organizers, learning logs, etc.
Summative assessment cycle and strategies.
Summative assessment is combined with formative assessment strategies in order to provide a comprehensive assessment system that enables both – monitoring of individual success and monitoring of a program quality.
Summative assessment provides:
-Essential benchmark on learner progress
-Essential benchmark on institutional progress
-Essential benchmark on adult education and training program
-Used to improve the program curriculum
Summative assessment strategies normally entail a type of final exam and
standardized tests for aptitude and admissions for different educational levels.
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Ikanos self-assessment test helps users to define a personal digital profile. The test considers eight areas that make up an individual’s digital profile, including DigComp’s five competencies areas
Ikanos self-assessment tool v2 has been designed to provide a personal digital profile to any user. The test considers three areas that make up an individual’s digital profile:
Did you use any kind of digital self assessment tool in so far? What are your observations? Why did you choose this tool? How do you monitor your further progress?
Discuss how do you create and apply assessment strategies vis-à-vis your learners, institution, program?
Assessment (self test and empower)
The following material provides in depth analysis of design assessment processes and instruments:
Under this topic we revealed some of the most important steps and considerations in creating effective formative and summative on and offline strategies for your learners. Also we presented some of the prominently used self assessment online tools for different disciplines and different target groups. Formative and summative most commonly used assessment strategies were enlisted for further consideration in adult educators work.